To Finance Short-Term Capital, Companies can use the following Methods:-
Companies buy raw materials, components, stores and spare parts on credit from different suppliers. Generally suppliers grant credit for a period of 3 to 6 months, and thus provide short-term finance to the company. Availability of this type of finance is connected with the volume of business. When the production and sale of goods increase, there is automatic increase in the volume of purchases, and more of trade credit is available.
The amounts due to a company from customers, on account of credit sale generally remains outstanding during the period of credit allowed i.e. till the dues are collected from the debtors. The book debts may be assigned to a bank and cash realised in advance from the bank. Thus, the responsibility of collecting the debtors’ balance is taken over by the bank on payment of specified charges by the company. This method of raising short-term capital is known as factoring. The bank charges payable for the purpose is treated as the cost of raising funds.
Discounting Bills of Exchange
This method is widely used by companies for raising short-term finance. When the goods are sold on credit, bills of exchange are generally drawn for acceptance by the buyers of goods. Instead of holding the bills till the date of maturity, companies can discount them with commercial banks on payment of a charge known as bank discount. The rate of discount to be charged by banks is prescribed by the Reserve Bank of India from time to time. The amount of discount is deducted from the value of bills at the time of discounting. The cost of raising finance by this method is the discount charged by the bank.
Bank Overdraft and Cash Credit
It is a common method adopted by companies for meeting short-term financial requirements. Cash credit refers to an arrangement whereby the commercial bank allows money to be drawn as advances from time to time within a specified limit. This facility is granted against the security of goods in stock, or promissory notes bearing a second signature, or other marketable instruments like Government bonds. Overdraft is a temporary arrangement with the bank which permits the company to overdraw from its current deposit account with the bank up to a certain limit. The overdraft facility is also granted against securities. The rate of interest charged on cash credit and overdraft is relatively much higher than the rate of interest on bank deposits